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“Jana Gana Mana” (song of freedom) is the national anthem of India. Written in highly Sanskritized (Tatsama) Bengali, the first of five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911. “Jana Gana Mana” was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950.

Rabindranath Tagore composed two national anthems: The Republic of India’s Jana Gana Mana and Bangladesh’s Amar Shonar Bangla. Jana Gana Mana was translated by Tagore in English and it was known as “Morning song of India” addressing God and Mother Land in it.